วันศุกร์ที่ 4 มีนาคม พ.ศ. 2554

Week Date 28 February 2011

In class, today teacher teach about “Noun Phrase” It are sometimes placed beside, or in apposition to, nouns or other noun phrases to explain them In various way, for example:
1. My mother is a teacher.
2. The Government plans dissolve the parliament.
3. The Royal palace was built in 1912.
พระราชวังสร้างขึ้นในปี 2455
That house is very big.
Or That house is look so big.
Then, teachers explain about work must to translation into us blog.

There are 4 types:
1. Opinion about website: it is exchange idea of each person that chooses the topic us interesting, after we post into blog.
2. Translation lesson
3. News Translation education
4. Translation structure
Out class ,I study about
Syntax : Chapter III: Noun Phrase "

As phrases are often described according to the classes of the words that function in them and also the order in which their components are arranged, Noun phrase get its name from the head word which is a noun.
In English, a noun phrase is composed of 3 main parts: Pre-modification; Central and Post-modification. The Central part, which is also called "the head", is obligatory. The other 2 parts are optional.
About the head, the most common kind of head of a Noun Phrase is a Noun (Obviously ). The second one is pronoun, mostly a personal pronoun. Other kinds are : Indefinite Pronoun, Possessive Pronoun and Demonstrative Pronoun. When the head is a Pronoun, it is rarely (or never) preceded by any kind of modification. Post-modification, mostly Relative Clause, can follow it, in this case.
Take a look at the Pre-modification:
Here is the "structure" of a Pre-modification :

Identifier + numeral/quantifier + Adjective + Noun modifier

+ Identifier: This section includes : Articles, Demonstratives and Possessives. They're mutually exclusive in English, which means only one can be present at a time in a context.

+ Numeral/Quantifier: We can insert more than one component, though there are also some limitation. There are several favourite sequences:

Ordinal numeral + Indefinite quantifier

Ordinal numeral + Cardinal numeral

Indefinite quantifier + Cardinal numeral

+ Pre-determiner: this kind of modification is not included in the structure. It appears before the pre-modification. They have a quantifier reference and the most common are 'all', 'both', and 'half' together with fraction numeral.

+ Adjective: Several adjectives, or none at all, may occur in a Noun phrase but when it happens, there appears to be some principle of ordering:
epithet ( most important characteristics) - size - shape - age - colour - origin - substance - present participle - denominal (derived from noun)

+ Noun modifier: Often, there is only one noun modifier present in a Noun phrase. Noun modifier + head noun construction is often the first stage in the formation of compound noun.

+ Noun phrase in the genitive case: this kind is marked by an ('s) added to its final words and often indicate possession. This explains why they are more commonly found with animate nouns as head than inanimate nouns. Also, the NP genitive case may be considered to be substituting for a possessive indentifer in the noun phrase in which it occurs as a pre-deteminer. Thus, NP genitive may in turn be the subject to analysis like any other noun phrase.

Finally, Post-modification:
The post-modification position in a Noun phrase is filled by clauses or phrases rather than by specific wordclasses or subclasses. There are 4 kinds: Relative clause, Non-finite clause, Prepositional phrase and Adjective/Adverb.

+ Adjective and Adverb:
Adjectives usually follow indefinite pronouns as head and do not normally come after a noun. However, there are a few cases (probably ones copied from French),eg. blood royal, heir apparent.

Adverbs are more frequently found and they could be regarded as the reduction of a prepositional phrase. It seems that those can function alternatively as a preposition.

+ Relative clause: A relative clause is a full clause consisting of a relative pronoun as a head which refers back to the head noun of the noun phrase in which it occurs as a post-modifier.

OK, I've just explained what we all learnt from secondary and high school . Now what do you think if I say comparison relates to relative clause ? Let's examine an example:
She buys more clothes in a month than I buy in a year.

In this example, the 'relative clause' is 'than I buy in a year' and the equivalent of relative pronouns is 'that', which refers back to 'more'.
One more thing, a superlative adjective as pre-modifier may be followed by a relative clause introduced by 'that'.

+ Non-finite clause: this kind is a kind of clause without subjects, introduced by a non-finite form of the verb. Commonly, we'll meet 3 kinds: Infinitive clause; Present Participle Clause and Past Participle Clause.

They are often regarded as reductions of relative clauses.

- Present Participle clause relates to an active (often progressive form but not always)

- Past Participle clause is always linked to a passive and thus restricted to transitive verbs.

For Present and Past Participle clauses as post-modifiers in noun phrases the implied subject is the head of the noun phrase. However, for infinitive clauses, this is not always true.
It is also possible to insert a specific subject by means of a 'for phrase'.
+ Prepositional phrase: the full range of preposition is used to introduce post-modifying prepositional phrases. Like non-finite clauses, prepositional phrases may have a relationship with fuller relative clauses, very often with the verb 'be'.

So,I think if you understand about noun phrases can have any of the grammatical roles that nouns have.
Who and Whom stands for heads that refers to persons while Which is used for non-human things.

Genitive relative pronoun Whose functions like an NP genitive within one of the noun phrases of the relative clause.

Whose of whom (for human and non-human head nouns)
However, some native speakers may prefer 'of which' for non-human head nouns.

English Grammar Lessons Phrases & Clauses
Introduction to Phrases
Phrases are considered as the second level of classification as they tend to be larger than individual words, but are smaller than sentences. We refer to the central element in a phrase as the head of the phrase. If the head is a noun then the phrase is called a noun phrase.

There are nine generally accepted classifications for phrases. These classifications are generally based on the headword or construction of the phrase. The headword can usually stand alone as a one-word phrase. It is the only part that cannot be omitted from the phrase.

Noun phrases may serve as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of prepositions. Most noun phrases are constructed using determiners, adjectives and a head noun.
Examples: My coach is happy. (noun phrase as subject)

Verb phrases are composed of the verbs of the sentence and any modifiers of the verbs, including adverbs, prepositional phrases or objects. Most verb phrases function as predicates of sentences.
Example: Henry made my coach very proud. (verb phrase as predicate)

Adjectival phrases are composed of the adjectives that modify a noun and any adverbs or other elements that modify those adjectives. Adjectival phrases always occur inside noun phrases or as predicate adjectives.
Example: Dad bought [(a blue and green) sweater]

Adverbial phrases are composed of the adverbs that modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses. Adverbial phrases may occur with more than one word. The extra adverb is called an intensifier.
Example: He scored the goal very quickly.

Prepositional phrases are composed of the preposition and a following noun phrase. Prepositional phrases are used either adjectivally to modify nouns or adverbially to modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses.
The man in the house rented it. (prepositional phrase modifies a noun adjectivally)
He went in the arena. (prepositional phrase modifies a verb adverbially)
Dad was happy about the goal. (prepositional phrase modifies an adjective adverbially)
On reflection, I believe that she was correct. (prepositional phrase modifies a clause adverbially)

Gerundive phrases may function in any way in which nouns may function: as subjects, objects, objects of a preposition, or even nouns functioning as adjectives Gerundive phrases may contain gerunds, adjectives, objects, adverbs or other main verb elements.
Example: Dad talked about winning the game.

Participles are root verbs with an "ed, en or ing" suffix. In the case of the past participial, the form may be irregular. Participial phrases may contain objects and other elements that might occur with main verbs. Participial phrases always function as adjectives.
Example: Racing around the corner, he slipped and fell.

Absolute phrases are composed of a subject noun phrase and a participial phrase. The absolute phrase is formally independent of the main clause. The subject of the absolute phrase does not have to appear in the main clause--because the absolute phrase has its own subject!
Example: [(My chores) (completed for the week)], I went on a walk.

Infinitive phrases are composed of an infinitive verb (the base form of the verb preceded by to) and any modifing adverbs or prepositional phrases. The infinitive phrase has three functions: noun, adjective, adverb.

My duty as a coach is to teach skills. (infinitive phrase functions as a noun)
My sister wanted a cat to love. (infinitive phrase functions as an adjective)
Bill is eager to work on his skating. (infinitive phrase functions adverbially, modifying an adjective)

Introduction to Clauses

All clauses have a subject and a verb.

This clause is a sentence and can act as a sentence.
Example: I wanted a new ball.

A subordinate clause has a subordinator.
Examples: Fred knew that I wanted a new ball.

Adverbial clauses modify the entire independent clause or another subordinate clause to which they might be attached. Some adverbial subordinators:" because, while, as, if, when, although, as if, after, since, unless, before, until". Adverbial clauses signal common adverbial meanings such as time of the event, place of the event, manner of the event, cause of the event or condition for the event.
I haven't been skating since we all went up to Banff last winter.
He stood there as if he was frozen to the very spot.
Fred jogs where there is no traffic because he likes it.

Relative clauses modify nouns and sometimes indefinite pronouns. Relative clauses occur with the relative pronouns "that, who, which, whom, whose" Relative clauses may also begin with the following relative adverbs "when, where, why".
I saw the player [who hit you].
I saw the player [that hit you].
I like the park [where I jog].
I would like to know the reason [why you didn't eat the vegtables].

Nominal clauses function as nouns and are subordinated by one of the following subordinating conjunctions"how ,that ,what ,when ,where ,whether which who why". Nominal clauses may be replaced with a pronoun
[How you did it] is not my concern. (That is not my concern)
[That I wanted a ball] was irrelevant in the discussion. ( It was irrelevant )

Sentence Constructions
Compound sentences are constructed using two independant clauses.
a. Fred hit the ball well, but he only walked to first base.
b. Computer technologies are more sophisticated and today's technicians are better trained.

Complex sentences are constructed using an independant sentence and a dependant or subordinated clause.
Example: The motion, which the commons narrowly passed, was defeated by the senate.
(Adjective clause introduced by relative pronoun)

Compound - Complex sentences are constucted using two independant sentences or clauses and a dependant clause.
Example:When the jets fly by, the windows rattle noisily and the whole house shakes.